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How to teach a friend to umpire

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Just had a friend text me saying he wants to get into umpiring. Obviously, I said I'd teach him how to umpire. Only thing is, I have very little experience teaching others to umpire. We're going to video chat to start (we'll out to a field eventually to show him what I'm teaching him), so my question is, what would you teach first? Any subsequent order would be great as well. I don't want to overwhelm him, but he seems excited and read to learn, and so am I.

My thought at the moment is to go through positioning, then maybe talk about some common plays, and field any questions he has as we go. It's been awhile since I learned how to umpire, and I'm not really sure what order I learned what. Does this seem like a good way to do it, or would you maybe start with more abstract concepts (i.e. timing)?

Thanks in advance!

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On the hottest day of the summer, during the hottest part of the day, have them put on plate gear and stand at home plate.  Scream derogatory stuff at your friend for 30 minutes without him (or her) taking a break.

If they make it through that, THEN you can start the REAL training.

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Start with the rule book, please.

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3 hours ago, yawetag said:

Start with the rule book, please.

Would you recommend a straight read through together, or by topic? 

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20 minutes ago, Biscuit said:

Would you recommend a straight read through together, or by topic? 

I suggest a two-pronged approach: start with the definitions and basic plate work (slot, mechanics, RLI responsibilities, U3K). But, boy, there's so much to cover!

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1 hour ago, LRZ said:

I suggest a two-pronged approach: start with the definitions and basic plate work (slot, mechanics, RLI responsibilities, U3K). But, boy, there's so much to cover!

I really like the suggestion of starting with the definitions section. I'm not sure how much plate mechanics I'll be able to do over video, chat, but I'll try. Thanks for the suggestions!

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Another vote here for the definitions section. One of the most important and easiest sections to go through, especially for a new umpire. 

I personally would walk him through the process of a game, as far as mechanics and whatnot. Arrive at the field, change, walk onto the field, have a plate meeting then jog out to right field. So much umpire training, especially for new guys, never covers what a game day actually looks like. You could start with a hypothetical "Top of the first, nobody on nobody out" and have the first play be a ground ball to the infield. 

The concepts I'd focus on for mechanics are starting positions A, B, and C, taking plays at first base, and a general idea of where you want to be as plays develop. For example if you're in C with a runner on third and 2 outs, get over to the first base side of the mound for the play at first. 

Plate work obviously is a whole adventure where you can talk about foot position, the slot, TIMING, etc. But I personally wouldn't bombard him with abstract concepts that don't have a practical use until you've umpired a few games and understand why timing is important or why making sure the fielder held onto the ball on a tag is so important. 

Most importantly, emphasize common sense, fair play, and to use his baseball IQ. I'm assuming if he's interested in umpiring he must have some interest in baseball. Knowing the situation and understanding things from a baseball perspective will help a lot as a new umpire. 

Note for when you inevitably talk about timing: Please make sure he understands that timing is proper use of eyes and not "he caught the ball, one Mississippi, two Mississippi." It's "he caught the ball, his foot is on the bag, the ball is in his glove" etc. 

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Two more factors to consider:

1. How much baseball experience does this person have? How much experience in other sports?

2. How much officiating experience does this person have, in any sport?

One thing I learned doing volleyball this year is that being able to anticipate what's going to happen can help so much in how you approach a particular situation. Because I had no experience in volleyball, it was hard for me to have that forethought. However, having officiating experience helped in a lot of things, such as game management. Just feeling comfortable in the pressure of a close match allowed me to keep calm during crucial moments.

I say this because so much of what you consider obvious may not necessarily be so to an outsider. Consider the student before you consider your teaching.

As for the rule book, I'll second the definitions. From there, start with the obvious - the basics of safe/out, strike/ball, fair/foul (this one could be long, depending on their ability to grasp it). And every time you continue, make sure to go back to applicable definitions.

The best officials never stop reading the book. The best teachers always return to what's been learned.

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22 minutes ago, yawetag said:

One thing I learned doing volleyball this year is that being able to anticipate what's going to happen can help so much

Quick note here @Biscuit . I agree with this thought but there's an important distinction between anticipating what's going to happen and anticipating the outcome. Anticipate the play, as in where it will develop/what events will take place, but DO NOT anticipate the outcome. 

I'm not correcting you @yawetag , I just wanted to emphasize that for teaching a new guy. 

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Sorry, I overlooked that you are starting out via video chat. OK, after definitions, perhaps basic game management and philosophy: in no particular order, timing, selling calls, dealing with players and coaches, plate meetings, conducting oneself in a professional manner, hustling, basics of two-ump teamwork--things that can be done over the video feed. As others have said, this would include anticipating the play, but not the call.

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I might start with a conversation on the myths of the game that can help him understand what he does not understand about the game and go from there.

There are several resources available online to reference.

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You need sections on
 

1) Mechanics

a) One Person

b) Two Person

i) Plate

ii) Base

2) Rules

a) Batter

b) Pitcher

c) Runner

d) Defense (for any few items that aren't covered when you discuss above)

3) Game Management

imo,the most important part in rules us going to be sure he doesn't fall for any of the "40 myths" (you can probably search for this), but you probably won't want to go over the whole list at one time--cover the myth when you cover the specific rule.  And, go through the "guest section" on this site to find any question that comes up more than once and cover that

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Thank you all for the suggestions! To answer @yawetag's questions, he's a Senior in High school, played ball all his life. No officiating experience that I'm aware of. I expect I will have to break some of his perceptions as a player, but he seems to understand that there's a lot more about the rules than he knows. I'm excited!

Any other topics are welcome additions.

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For mechanics there are many videos that you can review while screen sharing.  I think TASO and PIAA have some very good animated Powerpoint presentations.

One approach may be to share the screen to view the PP and follow it up with a video showing a live action drill. You can turn the sound off and emphasize the points that you feel are important.

Just my $0.02

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I like that, conbo61! Reviewing videos is a great suggestion, both for rules knowledge and application and for positioning and mechanics.

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22 hours ago, Stk004 said:

Quick note here @Biscuit . I agree with this thought but there's an important distinction between anticipating what's going to happen and anticipating the outcome. Anticipate the play, as in where it will develop/what events will take place, but DO NOT anticipate the outcome. 

I'm not correcting you @yawetag , I just wanted to emphasize that for teaching a new guy. 

Not offended at all, and something I meant to add to my post. You said it the same way I meant.

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ok, I'm on the "definitions" train.  That's what I did with all of my JR umpires.   Once they understand that..........they will have a better understanding of what they read in the rest of the book.

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Now on my 25th year of instructing (or, better, "training and equipping") folks in a variety of activities and disciplines, let me encourage you with a few Best Practices that I've picked up and integrated into training sessions:

  • The typical human has an effective window of approximately 20 minutes when learning, processing, and assimilating material – whether it be print (read), audio (heard), or interactive (physically doing). Counterintuitively, when a human is merely being spoken to, in an "instructional" manner, their retention – their learning – of what is being presented drops drastically over time. Thus, those "instructors" who drone on, and on, and on without another activity, engagement, or channel (audio, visual, or kinetic) utilized end up with material "not sticking". Plain ol' classwork isn't effective; metered, regulated coursework, interspersed with practical application is the most effective.
    The Umpire Schools do it rather well. From what I've seen and experienced of Wendlestedt's, they mix together typical classwork with in-class activities and group-work (which is surprisingly effective), then take the class outside for practical applications.
  • Break down and simplify umpire responsibilities as they relate to a/the "Ladder (or Pyramid) of Priorities": 1) Status (Live / Dead) and Location of the Baseball, 1a) Balls / Strikes (Plate Umpires only), B) Fair / Foul, C) Catch / No-Catch, D) Safe / Out. Umpire calls, mechanics, positioning, and motions / rotations are all based on this.
    An example is: When in 2-man (or 3-man, with U3 not on the wing), and there is a fly ball to left, and we're explaining what the PU is to do in that play, break it down... Where is the ball? Live, and it is hit towards left. Is it pressing or challenging the foul line? Yes (or no, but in this example, yes). According to our pre-pitch positioning (or initial positioning, IP), where is my partner? At (A, or B, or C). So... with a Live, fly ball to left, challenging the foul line, and my partner in the infield, I (as PU) have to judge Fair / Foul, so I have to stay on the line. So too, I also have Catch / No-Catch, so I'll want to be sure that I'm stable to see that happen, and that to determine a catch, we need a catch, with secure possession and voluntary release by the fielder.
    As an aside, you want to get new umpires in the habit of using The Ladder when analyzing any play. It's like a game of "Simon Says...". If someone presents to me a hypothetical, I begin my response with, "Is the ball Live or Dead?" If the ball's Dead, then we don't have a play! This cuts alot of these "mysterious balk" calls off at the knees.
  • Be realistic. This is a sport, played by humans, judged by humans. 
  • In that same vein, understand and embrace the context. This is a game, not life and death. The level you (new or progressing umpires) are about to do is not professional baseball; it may be important to the participants, and you want to do the best job you can, but you should make your calls, carry and conduct yourself, and interact with the participants in the context the game is occurring within. A Rec / Scout Scrimmage is not a League Championship, nor vice versa. 
  • When teaching and practicing umpire calls, split the signal / mechanic from the vocal.
    - For some practice plays, have your trainee(s) call it using nothing but their voice. Get in proper position, get stable, and then don't move past that. Call it with voice only. During these exercises, really focus on voice timing, projection, and vernacular (word choice). You may not think that this is an issue – what can you really say past Safe and Out? But, you'd be surprised what Plate Umpires will say (the infamous "Dead Ball!"), or what Base Umpires will call ("Got him!") in the heat of the moment.
    - Then, for another run of practice plays, have your trainee make the the call using no sound at all, completely with signals and mechanics. While on this series of exercises, focus on the timing and delivery of the mechanic (hands up for Time or Foul, Pointing of Fair, Extending the arms out properly for Safe, and the variations of Out, etc.). Introduce the concept of signal emphasis relevant to the intensity of the play, ie. Come up big when the situation calls for it, otherwise, a routine play can be treated as just that, clean and routine.
    - Last, unite the two elements in a series of exercises. The Umpire Schools have the benefit of full immersion in the training, so they have all trainees call everything the same way from Day 1. Teaching on an individual basis, in our spare time, doesn't carry that luxury. 
  • For positioning, teach to the trainee's strengths and experience instead of preaching the peril. The trainee has baseball playing experience, yes? Then he should be used to the speed of grounders and runners. Their Initial Position (IP) should be determined by the protocols in the Umpire Manual that we've used for years, not because they "feel more or less safe" in that spot. The IP in A is determined by where the F3 is, not at a specific distance behind 1B. The IP in B or C is not determined by opposite power, or being crowded, or whatever other excuses we've all heard from partners we've had.
  • Get a dry-erase whiteboard or a portable chalkboard, and instead of you drawing up a situation and explaining it to the trainee, you describe the situation, and have the trainee draw it up. Use our designations (F1, F3, R1, BR, etc.) as often as possible.
  • Reinforce that Umpire Success is a collaborative effort. Yes, we should know the Rules as thoroughly as possible, but there shouldn't be an expectation of knowing them verbatim (yet). It's more advantageous to know the "bones" of a Rule, and be able to recognize the components of the play that factor in, identify the Rule, and the general award or penalty. Example: present a play (either live reenactment or via video), and preface it by saying, "A Rule infraction will occur on this play", and then leave the trainee to watch it thoroughly, then identify the components of the play that the Rule affects. There is no shame in not knowing the rule precisely, at this stage; however, to miss a Rule violation because it doesn't match, exactly, what they read in some case play, is more egregious.

 

Yeah, just a few.

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44 minutes ago, MadMax said:

Now on my 25th year of instructing (or, better, "training and equipping") folks in a variety of activities and disciplines, let me encourage you with a few Best Practices that I've picked up and integrated into training sessions:

  • The typical human has an effective window of approximately 20 minutes when learning, processing, and assimilating material – whether it be print (read), audio (heard), or interactive (physically doing). Counterintuitively, when a human is merely being spoken to, in an "instructional" manner, their retention – their learning – of what is being presented drops drastically over time. Thus, those "instructors" who drone on, and on, and on without another activity, engagement, or channel (audio, visual, or kinetic) utilized end up with material "not sticking". Plain ol' classwork isn't effective; metered, regulated coursework, interspersed with practical application is the most effective.

We're one on one for this. Is discussing the rules/plays/mechanics sufficient, or is something more intentional a good idea? What would that look like?

  • The Umpire Schools do it rather well. From what I've seen and experienced of Wendlestedt's, they mix together typical classwork with in-class activities and group-work (which is surprisingly effective), then take the class outside for practical applications.
  • Break down and simplify umpire responsibilities as they relate to a/the "Ladder (or Pyramid) of Priorities": 1) Status (Live / Dead) and Location of the Baseball, 1a) Balls / Strikes (Plate Umpires only), B) Fair / Foul, C) Catch / No-Catch, D) Safe / Out. Umpire calls, mechanics, positioning, and motions / rotations are all based on this.
    An example is: When in 2-man (or 3-man, with U3 not on the wing), and there is a fly ball to left, and we're explaining what the PU is to do in that play, break it down... Where is the ball? Live, and it is hit towards left. Is it pressing or challenging the foul line? Yes (or no, but in this example, yes). According to our pre-pitch positioning (or initial positioning, IP), where is my partner? At (A, or B, or C). So... with a Live, fly ball to left, challenging the foul line, and my partner in the infield, I (as PU) have to judge Fair / Foul, so I have to stay on the line. So too, I also have Catch / No-Catch, so I'll want to be sure that I'm stable to see that happen, and that to determine a catch, we need a catch, with secure possession and voluntary release by the fielder.
    As an aside, you want to get new umpires in the habit of using The Ladder when analyzing any play. It's like a game of "Simon Says...". If someone presents to me a hypothetical, I begin my response with, "Is the ball Live or Dead?" If the ball's Dead, then we don't have a play! This cuts alot of these "mysterious balk" calls off at the knees.
  • Be realistic. This is a sport, played by humans, judged by humans. 

I'm not quite sure I understand what you mean by this. Are you reffering to keeping situations in the realm of reality? I.E, no pop ups that have a 20 second hang time?

  • In that same vein, understand and embrace the context. This is a game, not life and death. The level you (new or progressing umpires) are about to do is not professional baseball; it may be important to the participants, and you want to do the best job you can, but you should make your calls, carry and conduct yourself, and interact with the participants in the context the game is occurring within. A Rec / Scout Scrimmage is not a League Championship, nor vice versa. 
  • When teaching and practicing umpire calls, split the signal / mechanic from the vocal.
    - For some practice plays, have your trainee(s) call it using nothing but their voice. Get in proper position, get stable, and then don't move past that. Call it with voice only. During these exercises, really focus on voice timing, projection, and vernacular (word choice). You may not think that this is an issue – what can you really say past Safe and Out? But, you'd be surprised what Plate Umpires will say (the infamous "Dead Ball!"), or what Base Umpires will call ("Got him!") in the heat of the moment.
    - Then, for another run of practice plays, have your trainee make the the call using no sound at all, completely with signals and mechanics. While on this series of exercises, focus on the timing and delivery of the mechanic (hands up for Time or Foul, Pointing of Fair, Extending the arms out properly for Safe, and the variations of Out, etc.). Introduce the concept of signal emphasis relevant to the intensity of the play, ie. Come up big when the situation calls for it, otherwise, a routine play can be treated as just that, clean and routine.
    - Last, unite the two elements in a series of exercises. The Umpire Schools have the benefit of full immersion in the training, so they have all trainees call everything the same way from Day 1. Teaching on an individual basis, in our spare time, doesn't carry that luxury. 

Especially right now while we have limited contact with others, I'm not going to have the option to run him through live drills with runners and baseballs. Should I just have him react to audio plays ("Ground ball to the shortstop")? How does this look?

  • For positioning, teach to the trainee's strengths and experience instead of preaching the peril. The trainee has baseball playing experience, yes? Then he should be used to the speed of grounders and runners. Their Initial Position (IP) should be determined by the protocols in the Umpire Manual that we've used for years, not because they "feel more or less safe" in that spot. The IP in A is determined by where the F3 is, not at a specific distance behind 1B. The IP in B or C is not determined by opposite power, or being crowded, or whatever other excuses we've all heard from partners we've had.

I think I get what you're saying, but can you give me an example of a strength you'd play to and a peril you should not teach to?

  • Get a dry-erase whiteboard or a portable chalkboard, and instead of you drawing up a situation and explaining it to the trainee, you describe the situation, and have the trainee draw it up. Use our designations (F1, F3, R1, BR, etc.) as often as possible.
  • Reinforce that Umpire Success is a collaborative effort. Yes, we should know the Rules as thoroughly as possible, but there shouldn't be an expectation of knowing them verbatim (yet). It's more advantageous to know the "bones" of a Rule, and be able to recognize the components of the play that factor in, identify the Rule, and the general award or penalty. Example: present a play (either live reenactment or via video), and preface it by saying, "A Rule infraction will occur on this play", and then leave the trainee to watch it thoroughly, then identify the components of the play that the Rule affects. There is no shame in not knowing the rule precisely, at this stage; however, to miss a Rule violation because it doesn't match, exactly, what they read in some case play, is more egregious.

 

Yeah, just a few.

As always, a lengthy, fantastic, and super helpful post by MadMax.

I have a couple questions about some of the stuff you said. I inserted them into the body of the quote.

Thank you Max, you're contributions to this forum are invaluable. 

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On 5/8/2020 at 8:21 PM, Biscuit said:

We're one on one for this. Is discussing the rules/plays/mechanics sufficient, or is something more intentional a good idea? What would that look like?

Let me lead with a couple of examples, extreme that they may appear...

  1. The high school postseason was fast approaching, and the high school leadership had determined that we were going to use 3-man and 4-man throughout the playoffs, regardless of game time or classification. The crews chosen were expected to enroll and participate in a pair of online meetings (using GotoMeeting) in which 3-man was to be introduced and explained. The following week, we're to be given an on-field tutorial on 3-man. We arrive at a lit high-school field, travel through the gate to be confronted by a white dry-erase board set up on an easel at the first base line. The next 50 minutes saw us standing in a semi-circle around that easel while the instructor wrote and drew diagrams on the board!
    Why are we here??!! Why aren't we actually moving about on the field??!!
  2. This may be a limitation shared by all northern (read: winter) states, but several state's umpire "training" system is limited to one night a week, of classwork, spanning 11-12 weeks. Most of that classwork is reading along with PowerPoint slides, and perhaps engaging in some group discussion and activities.
  3. An association puts on a "clinic", conducted in a gymnasium, with attendees sitting in the bleachers / risers while a senior member of the association, acting as an instructor, reads through a series of slides and manual pages. This goes on for an hour.
    At this same association clinic, they do set up a screen and a pitching machine, and begin doing plate work. They are video recording this, and each umpire gets five pitches, with no advice given, no feedback, no adjustments. Now, certainly, they might have been using this to benchmark the guys, and might have been reviewing it with the umpires later... but, why would you publish it on youtube??!!

Discussion and dialog isn't enough. You must apply the principles. And, don't (as a trainer) let something be "good enough for now". Proper positioning and mechanics need to be practiced, not just mentioned in passing. The same can be said for Rule application. We cannot apply only part of a Rule. We have to get the rule right; so too, we have to get our mechanics and positioning right.

On 5/8/2020 at 8:21 PM, Biscuit said:

I'm not quite sure I understand what you mean by this. Are you referring to keeping situations in the realm of reality?

This is stated to both you, the trainer's, as well as the trainee's benefit. We're not robots, or machines. We're not perfect, nor should we be expected to be. Then again, the participants ain't perfect either.

Also, due to something you mentioned – and this is stated to the U-E patronage as well – as a trainer, keep the situations you present realistic. There is no benefit to dissecting "third world", once-in-a-lifetime plays, at least not yet. It's far better, and more effective, to thoroughly train and equip umpires how to recognize, analyze, and react to plays and rulings than to devote time and effort to those "freakish" plays that exceed what a new umpire would encounter.

On 5/8/2020 at 8:21 PM, Biscuit said:

while we have limited contact with others, I'm not going to have the option to run him through live drills with runners and baseballs.

I'm sure this is dependent upon where you live. Here in Arizona, there have been people out in the parks, doing a number of different activities. They just can't be with large groups of people, and they can't be "organized".

The point is, effective training cannot exist solely on paper, or on a whiteboard, or in a dialog. We must get out in space, and move about in that space.

Let's also be realistic about this – are you sick? No, by the read of things. Is he sick? Not from what you've told us, and I doubt he'd keep that status from you. So what's the problem with the two of you out on a field – otherwise alone – walking through some things?

On 5/8/2020 at 8:21 PM, Biscuit said:

but can you give me an example of a strength you'd play to and a peril you should not teach to?

Example: "The trainee (new umpire) should (or shall) be in B with R1. B is "here" (indicate where). The umpire shall be facing the plate, and best form and practice is to be hands-on-knees set from the point that the pitcher engages the rubber, thru the delivery of the pitch. The use of B, correctly, gives you optimal view of F1, a pickoff attempt of R1 at 1B, and to 2B on a steal attempt or a batted ball with a play at 2B. "Here" (indicate where) is where the trainee shall be." – This is teaching to strength.

"B is just to the 1B side of the mound. Now, you'll want to be back here (by the grass/dirt line), so you've got some reaction time, because you might get hit by a sharp grounder. Be aware you might get in the way of the 2nd baseman. If you want to turn kinda this way, so you can see both the plate and 1B, you can. Keep watch on that ball being thrown by the catcher, because he might hit ya with a throw, so hands on knees? You prolly don't need to." – This is preaching about the peril.

 

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31 minutes ago, MadMax said:

Let me lead with a couple of examples, extreme that they may appear...

  1. The high school postseason was fast approaching, and the high school leadership had determined that we were going to use 3-man and 4-man throughout the playoffs, regardless of game time or classification. The crews chosen were expected to enroll and participate in a pair of online meetings (using GotoMeeting) in which 3-man was to be introduced and explained. The following week, we're to be given an on-field tutorial on 3-man. We arrive at a lit high-school field, travel through the gate to be confronted by a white dry-erase board set up on an easel at the first base line. The next 50 minutes saw us standing in a semi-circle around that easel while the instructor wrote and drew diagrams on the board!
    Why are we here??!! Why aren't we actually moving about on the field??!!

Sorry to step in the middle, but I got a lot of time on my hands.

When I was in Virginia, I stayed out of HS postseason for most of my time, primarily for this sort of reason - we never use 3/4 man mechanics during the regular season, then the schools want it for The Big Games.  And I'd made the philosophic/realistic decision that I was not going out on the field, to suck in the middle of important games for people, using a mechanic with which I'm unfamiliar.  (Yes, I'll stipulate that's a coward's play.  It is what it is.)

Last year, I was in a different chapter here in Texas, and since I had some of the bigger schools - playoff-level - teams in SA, and didn't see anything I couldn't handle, I felt this weird stirring.  I'm told it's called "ambition" - I'm not familiar with the term.  And even though I was new to the group, I think some of the leaders wanted me to give playoffs a try, so I went to the clinic they scheduled.

It ..... did not go well.

It was alarmingly like what you described - minus the white-board.  We gathered around the infield, and got talked through the mechanics.  There was literally not one time we ran through anything, or drilled.  I think we were out there 90 or so minutes, and did *jack* as far as muscle-memory.  We were about halfway through when I said to myself "there's no [redacted] way I'm taking a playoff gig here, no matter how interesting it might be, or lucrative it is."  And although the committee member I told at the next meeting was pretty unhappy about it, I stood by that decision.

I mean, when I went to Evans in 2008, it wasn't like the guys there were noobs.  And we drilled and drilled and drilled.  Why?  'Cause talking' and book-larnin' ain't gonna get it done.  So the least these local groups can do is devote some time to actually moving around on a field.

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