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Can someone tell me what rule is used to show that a missed base requires an appeal and not just touching the base if a force.  For example, batter runner misses first as he runs through.  The throw is to first late.  What rule says he is presumed to have touched first?

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A runner passing a base is assumed to have touched it, the defense must "appeal" the missed base otherwise it is treated as though the base was touched.  Example: R1 and batter singles to right with runner going to third.  He misses second on his way to third.  If the defense does not appeal the miss at second the runner remains safe at third.

In the case of over-running and missing first base the applicable rule is 5.09(c)(3).

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The rule that tells us that a runner is presumed to have reached a base even though he has not actually touched it is 5.05(b)(3) Comment—in other words the base is his even though he has not legally acquired the base. Rule 5.06(a) tells us that a runner acquires the legal right to a base when he touches it before he is out.

2021 OBR Rule 5.05(b)(3) Comment: If catcher’s interference is called with a play in progress the umpire will allow the play to continue because the manager may elect to take the play. If the batter-runner missed first base, or a runner misses his next base, he shall be considered as having reached the base, as stated in Note of Rule 5.06(b)(3)(D).

And for high school the following interpretation can be found in the 2016 BRD (section 362, p. 242):

FED Official Interpretation:  Hopkins:  If BR misses first but beats the throw, he is “considered safe” and the umpire should so signal. If the defense appeals, the umpire will reverse his call.

2015 NFHS Baseball Rules Interpretations SITUATION 20: The batter hits the ball to the shortstop who bobbles the ball and throws late to first base. The batter-runner beats the throw but does not touch first base. RULING: The runner beats the ball on the play and is considered to be safe. The defense must appeal the missed base or tag the batter-runner before he returns to first in order to have the out declared for the missed base. (8-2-1 Penalty)

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The following text is from the 2021 Minor League Baseball Umpire Manual (section 5.12, p. 55):

“A runner does not acquire the right to an unoccupied base on an attempt to retire the runner until he touches it before he is put out. This is true regardless of whether the umpire’s act of not making a call signifies to the defensive team that the runner failed to touch the base for purposes of an appeal play.”

Play 1:  Batter-runner hits a ground ball and beats the play at first base but misses the bag as he passes it with both feet.

Ruling 1:  The proper mechanic is for the umpire to make no call on the play because the batter-runner has not yet touched first base. If the defense appeals by tagging the runner (or base) and appealing that the runner missed first base before the runner returns to first base, the batter-runner would be declared out…

This mechanic first appeared in the book for the 2018 edition of the MiLBUM. Someone posted back then that it was also in the 2018 Major League Baseball Umpire Manual. Someone also posted that this mechanic was not being taught at the umpire school.

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Mr. agdz59, is this what you are asking about?

2019 Case Book Play 8.2.2 Situation M:  With R2, B2 hits a grounder to left field. R2 touches third base but misses the plate in attempting to score. F7 having thrown home, F2 steps on the missed base to retire R2 and throws to F6 in an attempt to put out B2:  (a) before R2 attempts to return home; or (b) after R2 attempts to return to touch home plate. RULING:  (a) Upon proper defensive appeal, R2 would be ruled out. (b) Since R2 initiated action prior to the defense touching the plate, R2 must be tagged to record the out. R2 may legally return to touch home if he has not touched the steps of the dugout and if a subsequent runner has not yet scored.

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8 hours ago, agdz59 said:

So NFHS is different than OBR on this. Good to know, thanks.

Does this apply at home as well? If so, I've kicked it at home several times as I have not made a call when the runner misses the plate.

If there's a missed tag and a missed base at home, no call is the proper mechanic.

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23 hours ago, Senor Azul said:

The following text is from the 2021 Minor League Baseball Umpire Manual (section 5.12, p. 55):

“A runner does not acquire the right to an unoccupied base on an attempt to retire the runner until he touches it before he is put out. This is true regardless of whether the umpire’s act of not making a call signifies to the defensive team that the runner failed to touch the base for purposes of an appeal play.”

Play 1:  Batter-runner hits a ground ball and beats the play at first base but misses the bag as he passes it with both feet.

Ruling 1:  The proper mechanic is for the umpire to make no call on the play because the batter-runner has not yet touched first base. If the defense appeals by tagging the runner (or base) and appealing that the runner missed first base before the runner returns to first base, the batter-runner would be declared out…

This mechanic first appeared in the book for the 2018 edition of the MiLBUM. Someone posted back then that it was also in the 2018 Major League Baseball Umpire Manual. Someone also posted that this mechanic was not being taught at the umpire school.

It’s interesting that the FED interp is from 2015 and Hopkins interp is 2016 when MLB also agreed the correct mechanic was to call the runner safe until proper appeal. ( See the 2015 MLBUM that advocates calling the runner safe). 
The mechanic change in MLB happened  sometime after those FED interps.
     I wonder if FED still wants the safe call.   

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Guest concertman71

I have been reading about this (and drinking bourbon!) most of the night). If I understand this correctly, (FED) 8.2.1 allows for the BR to be considered to have legally acquired 1b when he passed it. However, 8.2.3 would make it seem that if there was R3 who scored, BR would be out when he missed 1B regardless of appeal. 

Additionally, reading the FED rule book and casebook, as well as the BRD 2016, I can not find the rule or the wording that says (other than HOPKINS) that the runner is safe. Mostly wondering how I can explain a "safe" then "OUT" (on appeal) when BR missed 1b but beat the throw. 

I am wondering if this is one of those rules where we all see the BR beat the throw, but miss the base, so we bang him out, and then there is no explanation needed. Is this one of those obscure rules interps where we (as umpires) like to show the coaches that we know the rules better than they do, or should we just bang the out, and if there is a question, tell the offensive coach that his BR missed the base and move on?

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16 minutes ago, Guest concertman71 said:

I have been reading about this (and drinking bourbon!) most of the night). If I understand this correctly, (FED) 8.2.1 allows for the BR to be considered to have legally acquired 1b when he passed it. However, 8.2.3 would make it seem that if there was R3 who scored, BR would be out when he missed 1B regardless of appeal. 

Additionally, reading the FED rule book and casebook, as well as the BRD 2016, I can not find the rule or the wording that says (other than HOPKINS) that the runner is safe. Mostly wondering how I can explain a "safe" then "OUT" (on appeal) when BR missed 1b but beat the throw. 

I am wondering if this is one of those rules where we all see the BR beat the throw, but miss the base, so we bang him out, and then there is no explanation needed. Is this one of those obscure rules interps where we (as umpires) like to show the coaches that we know the rules better than they do, or should we just bang the out, and if there is a question, tell the offensive coach that his BR missed the base and move on?

It's really not an interpretation. In all codes, by rule, a runner is considered to have reached the base once they have completely passed it. Thus, they can not be put out for not reaching the base before the base is tagged (relevant on a force play or at first base.) The runner is safe until there is an appeal. The relevant rules are FED 3-4-2i and j, and 8-2-3.

It's our job to know the rules and enforce them properly. I'd better know the rules better than a coach unless they've been as diligent in understanding the rules as an umpire would.

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Mr. concertman71, FED rule 8-2-3 refers to a following runner. For a batter-runner an R3 is a preceding runner. The rule is telling us that if R3 misses home and a following runner, R2 for example, scores on the same play that R3 would not have a legal way of correcting his baserunning error. Of course, the responsibility still is on the defense to recognize the violation and make a proper appeal.

2019 NFHS rule 8

SECTION 2 TOUCHING, OCCUPYING AND RETURNING TO A BASE

ART. 3 . . . Any runner who misses a base while advancing may not return to touch it after a following runner has scored.

2015 NFHS Baseball Rules Interpretations SITUATION 20: The batter hits the ball to the shortstop who bobbles the ball and throws late to first base. The batter-runner beats the throw but does not touch first base. RULING: The runner beats the ball on the play and is considered to be safe. The defense must appeal the missed base or tag the batter-runner before he returns to first in order to have the out declared for the missed base. (8-2-1 Penalty)

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