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Appeals on over running/sliding

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There's another thread on appeals that I was gonna post this in, but it feels different enough that I thought I should make a new thread. I think I might know the answer(s), but just want to make sure. (In writing this question, I've become less sure.)

BR over runs or overslides first without touching the bag and a) some part of the BR stays on or to the right of an imaginary line extended from the second base side of first base. b) the entire body of the BR ends up to the left of an imaginary line extended from the second base side of first base, but the umpire rules he made no attempt to go to second base c) the entire body of the BR ends up to the left of an imaginary line extended from the second base side of first base, and the umpire rules he made an attempt to go to second base.

In any of the situations above, can the defense successfully appeal at first base? 

At what point has the BR passed first for the purpose of a play (not appeal) at first? I.e his entire body has past first, but he never touched the bag, by the time the ball reaches F3. I think he'd be safe due to the fact that he is assumed to have touched first until appealed otherwise... But that contradicts some of my thoughts on the appeal plays above. 

To muddy this post just a little more, does any of this change on a play at 2nd or third? Is it different in anyway for a force vs non force? 

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For (a), (b), and (c), the defense can appeal the miss of first base. The runner is subject to appeal for missing the base as soon as his entire body passes the base. This appeal must be made before the runner returns and touches the base and appeal must be an obvious appeal (simply touching the base is not an appeal).

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If I'm BU and I see BR miss first, I've been told to not make a call thereby signalling the miss.  Has that changed?  I do the same at home plate for a miss of home.

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3 hours ago, yawetag said:

For (a), (b), and (c), the defense can appeal the miss of first base. The runner is subject to appeal for missing the base as soon as his entire body passes the base. This appeal must be made before the runner returns and touches the base and appeal must be an obvious appeal (simply touching the base is not an appeal).

Agree with this. For a missed base appeal, either the runner or the base missed may be tagged, provided the intent of the defense to appeal is clear (for example: "He missed the base" + tags 1B).

Note that this has nothing to do with whether the BR attempts to go to 2B. That's a separate rule unrelated to the missed base.

By making an attempt to go to 2B, the BR loses his protection for overrunning 1B. At that point, he's a runner off base and may be tagged for an out. This is not an appeal play, and tagging the base does not retire the BR.

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25 minutes ago, agdz59 said:

If I'm BU and I see BR miss first, I've been told to not make a call thereby signalling the miss.  Has that changed?  I do the same at home plate for a miss of home.

I think that's the current mechanic. It used to be you signaled "safe" and waited for any appeal, but it's been changed recently.

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I posted the following in March 2019.

From the 2018 Minor League Baseball Umpire Manual (section 5.15, p. 46). The text is underlined in the book signifying a change for the 2018 season in Minor League Baseball.

A runner does not acquire the right to an unoccupied base on an attempt to retire the runner until he touches it before he is put out. This is true regardless of whether the umpire’s act of not making a call signifies to the defensive team that the runner failed to touch the base for purposes of an appeal play.

Play 1:  Batter-runner hits a ground ball and beats the play at first base but misses the bag as he passes it with both feet.

Ruling 1:  The proper mechanic is for the umpire to make no call on the play because the batter-runner has not yet touched first base. If the defense appeals by tagging the runner (or base) and appealing that the runner missed first base before the runner returns to first base, the batter-runner would be declared out.

***

The following interpretation can be found in the 2016 BRD (section 362, p. 242):

FED Official Interpretation:  Hopkins:  If BR misses first but beats the throw, he is “considered safe” and the umpire should so signal. If the defense appeals, the umpire will reverse his call.

2015 NFHS Baseball Rules Interpretations SITUATION 20: The batter hits the ball to the shortstop who bobbles the ball and throws late to first base. The batter-runner beats the throw but does not touch first base. RULING: The runner beats the ball on the play and is considered to be safe. The defense must appeal the missed base or tag the batter-runner before he returns to first in order to have the out declared for the missed base. (8-2-1 Penalty)

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